➜ Duty cycle limitations in Europe are based on the ETSI rules and recommendations on using the ISM radio band.
In basic terms, the rules state that electronic instruments can only transmit over the air on a given frequency for a certain amount of time.
it is the devices responsibility to not to exceed the limits, and typically devices can be configured for sending a number of uplinks per day. There are numerous online Time On Air calculators which can calculate the TOA based on the payload length and the used Data Rate.
The server calculates the Time On Air for every message and should distribute the message such that no gateway exceed the limits. With downlinks, no user interaction is required.